Validation

Usage

โ€‹io-ts is a nifty library that validates and checks at runtime that incoming data has the shape that you expect. This powerful library can extract a static type from the validator that is guaranteed to match any values that pass validation.

Lets say that we would like to validate users that can contain different roles from the given set: 'ADMIN' | 'GUEST'. You can create string literals using combination of t.union and t.literal codecs.

user.dto.ts
user.dto.ts
import { t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
โ€‹
export const UserDto = t.type({
id: t.string,
firstName: t.string,
lastName: t.string,
roles: t.array(t.union([
t.literal('ADMIN'),
t.literal('GUEST'),
])),
});
โ€‹
export type UserDto = t.TypeOf<typeof UserDto>;
โ€‹
/* ๐Ÿ‘‡
type User = {
id: string;
name: string;
roles: ('ADMIN' | 'GUEST')[];
};
postUser.effect.ts
postUser.effect.ts
import { r } from '@marblejs/core';
import { requestValidator$, t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
import { UserDto } from './user.dto';
โ€‹
const validateRequest = requestValidator$({
body: UserDto,
});
โ€‹
const postUser$ = r.pipe(
r.matchPath('/'),
r.matchType('POST'),
r.useEffect(req$ => req$.pipe(
validateRequest,
// ..
)));

Branded types

io-ts allows you to create a custom codec validators that must match to given predicate. There are ton of use cases where you can use this mechanism, eg. you would like to validate users which are adult (age is bigger or equal 18).

import { t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
โ€‹
interface AgeAdultBrand {
readonly AgeAdult: unique symbol;
}
โ€‹
const AdultAge = t.brand(
t.number,
(age): age is t.Branded<number, AgeAdultBrand> => age >= 18,
'AgeAdult'
);
โ€‹
const User = t.type({
id: t.string,
name: t.string,
age: AdultAge,
})
โ€‹
type User = t.TypeOf<typeof User>;
โ€‹
๐Ÿ‘‡
โ€‹
type User = {
id: string;
name: string;
age: t.Branded<number, AgeAdultBrand>;
};

As you can see, io-ts requires some boilerplate in order to have it properly typed, but the benefits are invaluable.

Optional properties

According to io-ts documentation you can define a validator with optional values as an intersection of optional and required properties.

import { t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
โ€‹
const Story = t.intersection([
t.type({
type: t.literal('story'),
commentsTotal: t.number,
}),
t.partial({
description: t.string,
url: t.string,
})
]);
โ€‹
type Story = t.TypeOf<typeof Story>;
โ€‹
๐Ÿ‘‡
โ€‹
type Story = {
type: 'story';
commentsTotal: number;
} & {
description?: string | undefined;
url?: string | undefined;
}

The generated Story type is not as clean as it might be. Jasse Hallett in his article proposed a slightly different approach to defining optional values in validator schemas. Lets define a handy optional combinator!

import { t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
โ€‹
export const optional = <T extends t.Any>(
type: T,
name = `${type.name} | undefined`
): t.UnionType<
[T, t.UndefinedType],
t.TypeOf<T> | undefined,
t.OutputOf<T> | undefined,
t.InputOf<T> | undefined
> =>
t.union<[T, t.UndefinedType]>([type, t.undefined], name);

Technically this implies that we expect the given property to be present in every case, but that the value might be undefined. In practice, that distinction often does not matter, and io-ts will validate an object that is missing a required property if the type of that property is allowed to be undefined.

Using the introduced combinator our Story definition can be much more cleaner and readable.

import { t } from '@marblejs/middleware-io';
โ€‹
const Story = t.type({
type: t.literal('story'),
commentsTotal: t.number,
description: optional(t.string),
url: optional(t.string),
});
โ€‹
type Story = t.TypeOf<typeof Story>;
โ€‹
๐Ÿ‘‡
โ€‹
type Story = {
type: 'story';
commentsTotal: number;
description: string | undefined;
url: string | undefined;
}